We all must have heard about this question many times, but many of us may not know the answer to this question very well. Let us understand why this happens.
We all know that the Earth is round and tilted 66 1/2 on its axis. The Earth revolves around a Sun in a fixed orbit and the Earth rotates on its axis in 24 hours. Earth is divided into continent and ocean. Also, two poles are also found on the earth.
Where is the pole located?
Two poles are found on earth. North pole in north and south pole in south. North pole is called Arctic circle and South pole is called Antarctic circle.
Reason to be 6 months day and 6 months night on Poles?
At the North Pole, the Sun rises around 22 March. At this time the North Pole of the Earth is in the Sun's horizon, when the Earth rotates due to its axis, only the North Pole would receive the Sun's light. At this time, the South Pole is opposite to the Sun, so the sunlight cannot reach here. Therefore, there is a 6 month day at the North Pole because sunlight exist here until 6 months .
On 23 September, the South Pole comes in front of the Sun and the Sun rises here for 6 months. At this time the North Pole is completely opposite to the Sun. In this way, the South Pole gets sunlight for 6 months. In contrast, the North Pole has night for 6 months.
Why is life difficult on the pole?
There is 6 months day and 6 months night on the pole and there is snow all year round, there is also a lack of basic facilities for people, so life is very difficult here, so there is very little population here. It is colder than that because the North Pole is located at the middle of the ocean at sea level. At the North Pole there is a 2-3 meter pearl layer of frozen ice on the sea while the thickness of the ice layer at the south pole is 1-2 meters.
The North Pole is located in the Arctic Ocean while the South Pole is located in the Antarctic continent. Many countries in the Antarctic continent have established their scientific research centers. Antarctica has been recorded as the coldest place in the world. It is also called a snow desert.
Countries located in the northern and southern poles-
Countries located in the North Pole - Canada, Greenland, Russia, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
Countries in the South Pole - Antarctic Continent
Other Important Points -
First person to reach North Pole - Robert Pierre (US)
First woman to reach the North Pole - Ann Bencraft
First person to reach South Pole - Ronald Amundsen (Norway)
The first woman to reach the South Pole - Ann Bencraft
First woman to reach the Antarctic continent - Zakirone
Research centers established by India in Antarctic continent - Maitri (1989), Dakshin Gangotri (1983), Bharti (2012)