In today's article, we will read about climate, how climate affects the physical conditions of a country. Have you ever tried to know about the variations found in the weather of the place where you live? Such as the month of May is so hot, excessive rainfall in June-July, and the cold of December, how is there such a difference in these seasons? We will know the answer to all these questions in this article.
To know the answers to these questions, it is necessary to know about the climate of India, so let us know -
"The sum of weather conditions and variations in a large area over a long period of time is called Climate".
Therefore, the climate is calculated by taking an average of the changes in the weather of that region for a long time. Many times we consider climate and weather to be the same, while there is a clear difference in them.
Let us first understand the difference between climate and weather.
We can understand the weather in such a way that the change in the state of the atmosphere for a short time is called the weather. The state of the weather can change many times in a day as you must have seen many times that the sun in one day Along with being, sometimes the weather changes completely and it starts raining. This is called changing the weather in the common language and when we study these changing conditions of the weather for a long time. It is called climate.
Weather is called the change in atmospheric state in a small area and in the short term. The climate is obtained by averaging the weather conditions over a long period of time over a large area.
We have learned about the climate, but do you know how the climate of India is? and why the climate of India is like this? Let us discuss the climate of India in detail.
If we talk about the climate of India, India has a tropical monsoon climate. This type of climate is found mainly in the south and southeastern parts of India.
The tropical climate is mainly found in the area between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Cancer. Tropic of Cancer passes through India. So Tropic of Cancer divides India into two parts.
The southern part is located near the equator and the southern part of India has a tropical climate. Whereas the northern part of India was above the Tropic of Cancer, it should have a temperate climate. But the Himalayan Mountains are located in the north of India. The height of which is about 6000 meters. This Himalayan mountain prevents the cold winds coming from Central Asia to enter India. Hence these polar cold winds do not enter India. Is that India gets less cold than Central Asia like Siberia and China. And India has a tropical climate whereas the north of India has a temperate climate.
Along with being tropical, India also has a monsoon climate. Let us first understand what is the monsoon? Monsoon means that the direction of the wind changes during the year by season. There are two types of monsoon climate in India. North Eastern Monsoon and South Western Monsoon
North Eastern Monsoon - The cold winds entering the North-East direction in India are called the North Eastern Monsoon. The North Eastern Monsoon is affected in India during the winter season and it flows over the terrain in India. It is that this monsoon does not rain in India, but when the North Eastern monsoon flows through northeast India. You flow over the Bay of Bengal and receive sufficient humidity from it. After that, hitting the east coast of Tamil Nadu, it rains heavily on the Coromandel coast. This is the reason that Tamil Nadu receives rainfall even in winter.
South Western Monsoon - The Southwest Monsoon enters India from the South-Western direction. The southwest monsoon flows in India in summer. The southwest monsoon is the main reason for rainfall in India. Up to 90% of the rainfall in India is due to the southwest monsoon.
Thus we can say that India is a country with a tropical monsoon climate.
Now we know about the effect and distribution of rainfall in India. There is a difference in the type of rainfall in India as well as its distribution according to its quantity and season. Rainfall in India is seen in two seasons.
The rainfall in India during the summer season is due to the southwest monsoon. Winds coming from the southwest direction flow over the Indian Ocean before entering India. And receives sufficient humidity from it, after which it rains in India. The Southwest monsoon splits into two branches after entering India. Arabian Sea Branch and Bay of Bengal Branch.
The Arabian Sea branch first rains on the Malabar Coast of the state of Kerala, located on the west coast of India, around 1 June. Due to its arrival in India, there is a sudden intensity of normal rainfall. This phenomenon is called monsoon explosion.
Around the first week of June, the Bay of Bengal branch first collides with the Shillong plateau of Meghalaya and rains heavily on the hills of Garo, Khasi, and Jaintia on the Meghalaya plateau. Cherrapunji and Masinram, situated on the cough hill, receive the highest rainfall in the world. After this, the branch reaches the state of Assam and rains thereafter, after hitting the mountains, mountains and turns towards the west. At this time the Arabian Sea branch also reaches the central part of India and rains in central India. After this, both the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch merge with each other in the northwestern part of the Gangetic plain. By the first week of July, the monsoon reaches other parts of the country - northwest Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and rains there, and by mid-July, it reaches Himachal Pradesh and the remaining parts and rains there.
Winter rainfall in India depends on two reasons. Western Disturbance and North Eastern Monsoon.
Western Disturbance - This is a type of temperate cyclone. This cyclone originates over Sumati Sagar or West Asia, which is extremely cold. From there it flows in the east direction and enters the western and northwestern part of India. It is called Western Disturbance as it enters India from the western part. Due to western disturbances, snowfall is received in the form of snowfall in the hill states of India, Jammu, and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand. Because most of the Himalayan peaks are above the snow line. Where the temperature is less than 0 degrees centigrade, the rainfall is in the form of snow. Due to western disturbances, the northern plains of India, Punjab, Haryana, and Delhi also receive rainfall.
North-east monsoon winds flow in India during the winter season because these winds flow from the site towards the sea. Hence we are not able to make rain but when it flows from northeast India towards the site from the sea, it rains in Tamil Nadu with a sufficient amount of moisture. Therefore, in winter, rainfall in India is characterized by western disturbances and northeast monsoon winds.
The western disturbance causes winter rainfall in India. It enters India by the jet stream from the northwest direction. Jet currents are a westward current in the troposphere at an altitude of more than about 12000 meters. Hence, they are also called backward jet streams.
Because these currents lie between 27 and 30 degrees latitude. Hence, they are also called subtropical western jet streams. Jet currents are powerful winds flowing west to east Central Asia, Tibet, and China north of the Himalayas. In India, these jet streams flow south of the Himalayas throughout the year except in summer. In the summer, the subtropical western jet streams move north of the Himalayas with the virtual movement of the Sun.
In the winter when the sun is clockwise. So this jet stream also turns south and collides with the Himalayas in India and splits into two parts - The northern jet stream and The southern jet stream.
The southern jet stream starts to flow from west to east in the Himalayan vines in India. This jet stream brings with it the westerly disturbance in India, which is the reason for rain in northern India in the winter season. The amount of rainfall decreases from west to east as the amount of humidity present in the air decreases.
The monsoon period in India ranges from about 100 to 120 days from early June to mid-September.
The withdrawal of the monsoon starts in September from the west north states of India and by 15 October the monsoon has completely retreated from the northern part of the entire Indian subcontinent. The highest rainfall occurs on the east coast in order for the monsoon to retreat. The returning monsoon receives sufficient moisture from the Bay of Bengal and, along with the North Eastern monsoon, rains in the months of October - November on the Raisima in Andhra Pradesh and the Coromandel Coast in Tamil Nadu. On the other hand, the tropical cyclones formed in the Bay of Bengal move from east to west and receive heavy rainfall in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu located on the east coast.
We got information about the monsoon mechanism in summer and monsoon in winter, how it rains, and causes in summer and winter in India. Now we will know about the factors that control the climate of India. What are the factors that influence India's climate?
There are some major factors that control the climate of India -
Latitude - The Tropic of Cancer passes through the central part of India from the Rann of Kutch in the west to Mizoram in the east. Thus half of India (northern part) falls in the subtropical and half (southern part) tropical region.
Because the southern part of India is located near the equator. Hence, low temperatures are found here with high temperatures throughout the year. Whereas the northern part of India is away from the equator, it has an uneven climate with more daily, annual warming.
Thus, the climate of India has characteristics of both tropical and subtropical climates.
Himalaya Mountains / Elevation - The Himalayan Mountains are located in the northern part of India with an average elevation of 6000 meters. The Himalayas play an effective climate divide in India. The high mountain ranges of the Himalayas prevent the cold winds from coming from Central Asia to the Indian subcontinent, hence the Himalayas cause India to have less cold than in Central Asia, and similarly, the Himalayan monsoon winds can also prevent rain in the subcontinent. It is made.
Distribution of water and land - below the Tropic of Cancer in the southern part of India, Peninsular India is surrounded by the Arabian Sea in the west on three sides, the Bay of Bengal in the east, and the Indian Ocean in the south. While many of the Himalayas in the northern part of India are high- There are high ranges. In the summer season, the region of low pressure is formed in northwestern India. It attracts the winds coming from the Indian Ocean. On the other hand, the sea The water of Su is warmer and cooler in the late than in the land, and the area of high pressure is produced here. That is why different air pressure regions develop in different seasons in the Indian continent. So the difference in the climate of terrestrial and aquatic areas Is found.
Distance from the coastline - Due to the long coastline in the southern part of India, there is not much asymmetry in the climate in the coastal states. This is the reason why you must have seen that the people living on the Mumbai and Konkan coast have temperature fluctuations and weather changes. Can't experience it because there is almost the same weather throughout the year. While talking about the states located in the northern parts, there is a lot of variation in the weather here. And the people living here experience different temperatures in different seasons, so as the distance from the sea increases, the temperature disparity increases.
The altitude from sea level - As the altitude changes - the temperature starts to decrease. So the mountainous areas are colder than the plains. Even after being located in the same latitude, there is a difference in temperature due to the elevation in the areas. This is the reason that the temperature of Agra in January is 15° C which is located in the site, whereas the temperature of Darjeeling is 4° C, which is a mountainous region.
So We have learned about the factors that affect the climate of India. We have read above how the climate of India is affected by the winds coming from the north and the south. Let us know that the winds in the northern and southern hemispheres are Coriolis.
Coriolis force - "Coriolis force is the virtual force produced by the rotation of the Earth on its own axis."
The effect of this force causes winds to be deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. This is called the rule of feral. Or it can also be said that these winds are counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere. In and in the southern hemisphere.
Law of Feral - If we stand facing the direction in which the air is blowing, or if we stand in the opposite direction from the direction in which the wind is coming, then the winds are in your right and the southern hemisphere in the northern hemisphere. The wind will turn to your left.
This is the reason that northern commercial winds and southern commercial winds flow in India, which affects the climate of India.
Despite uniformity in the general pattern in India, a clear regional variation can be seen in the climatic condition of the country. Let us look at these.
You must have noticed that the temperature of some places in the desert reaches about 50 degrees centigrade during the daytime. Whereas in the desert at night time this temperature can be reduced to 15-degree centigrade. Whereas in other states, such variation in daily temperature is not found.
On the other hand, if we talk about rain, the rain in the mountainous regions of the country is in the form of snow/ice. While in other Indian territories, it occurs as rainwater.
The average annual rainfall in India is about 118 centimeters whereas in the Tehsil of Masinram in Meghalaya it is more than 100 cm. Because Masinram is situated on the Khasi hills. Which is funnel-shaped and severely obstructs the path of the Bay of Bengal branch. This is the reason that Maasinram is the world's most receiving place. On the other hand, Le Ladakh and western Rajasthan receive less than 10 cm of rainfall. Because where a high-pressure field is produced. Due to this, rainfall does not get here because the wind always flows from high pressure to low pressure. Because the area of low pressure attracts the winds quickly. The normal period of rainfall in India is from June to September. While the Tamil Nadu coast receives rains from the northeast monsoon in October-November.