Important Geographical Term


Today's article is very important. You are going to get very important information in this article, which will be very useful for you in many competitive exams.

You all must have read or heard about strait, isthmus, island, peninsula, gulf, and pass, etc. many times, but these will always create confusion in your mind.

In this article, you will learn about these important geographical terms. You will learn what is Strait, what is Isthmus, the difference between Strait and Isthmus, what is Island, what is Peninsula, what is Gulf, and what is a pass.

In this article, you will learn about all these in a very easy language. And we will also know in detail the other important facts related to them.

After reading this article, all your doubts about strait, isthmus, island, peninsula, gulf, and pass will be cleared. We will learn about all these in detail one by one. So let's start our article  -

What is Strait

Narrow waterways connect two large bodies, such as the sea or the ocean, and through which ships or boats can travel from one large reservoir to another. They are called Strait. Talking about its geographical size, it is often like a dammer, and there is a strait in the middle of its two large aquatic parts, so it is also called a strait. Strait also separates two large landmasses.

                                                       List of Straits

Strait

Landmass

Connecting Water Bodies

Malacca Strait

Indonesia-Malaysia

The Andaman Sea & South China Sea

Hormuz Strait

Iran and Oman

The Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf

Bab-el-Mandeb

Djibouti, Yemen, and Eritrea of the Somali Peninsula

The Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea

Ten Degree Channel

Car Nicobar Islands and Little Andaman

The Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal

Sunda Strait

Java island of Indonesia with its Sumatra island.

The Java Sea and the Indian Ocean

Florida Strait

Cuba and the USA

Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean

Bering Strait

Asia from America

The Arctic Ocean and East Pacific ocean

Strait of Gibraltar

Spain and Morocco

The Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea

Korea Strait

Japan and South Korea

The East China Sea and the Sea of Japan

Bonifacio Strait

Corsica island of France and Sardinia islands of Italy

The Tyrrhenian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea

Palk Strait

India and Sri Lanka

The Bay of Bengal in the northeast with the Palk Bay/Arabian Sea in the southwest

Bosphorus Strait

Divides Europe from Asia

The Black Sea to Sea of Marmara

Bass Strait

Tasmania island and mainland Australia

The Great Australian Bight and the Tasman Sea

Davis Strait

Between Greenland and Canada

The Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea

Jamaica Channel

Jamaica and Hispaniola

The Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic

Nemuro strait

Kuril Island, Russia Hokkaido, Japan

 

North Channel

Ireland-England

The Irish Sea & Atlantic Ocean

Cook Strait 

Italy-Albania

The Adriatic Sea & Ionian Sea

Mozambique Strait 

Mozambique -Madagascar

Indian Ocean

Hudson strait 

Canada

Gulf of Hudson & Atlantic Ocean

Messina Strait

Italy-Sicily

Mediterranean Sea 

Magellan strait

Chile 

Pacific and South Atlantic Ocean

Makassar Strait

The Java Sea & Celebes Sea

Indonesia

The longest straits in the world

The Straits of Malacca is 890 km (550 mi) long, is the longest strait in the world. It is located between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It connects the Andaman sea (Indian ocean) with the south china sea (pacific ocean). The straits of Malacca is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world.

Strait of Malacca

The narrowest strait in the world

Bosporus strait is the narrowest strait in the world. Bosporus strait connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara. It is located in northwestern Turkey. The Bosporus strait is 19 miles (30 km) long. It is also known as the Strait of Istanbul. The Bosphorus strait divides Europe and Asia Continents. 

Bosphorus Strait

What is an Isthmus 

A narrow piece of land that connects two large landmasses and separates two large bodies of water is called an Isthmus.

Largest isthmus in the world

Isthmus of Panama

It lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean which links North and South America. Panama Isthmus separates the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

Isthmus of Panama

Suez Isthmus

Suez's Isthmus, located in eastern Egypt, separates the Mediterranean and Red Seas and connects the continents of Africa and Asia. The Suez isthmus is 75-mile-wide (125-km) long. The Isthmus of Suez is particularly notable because of the presence of the Suez Canal.

suez isthmus

What is a Peninsula

A Peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on three sides, while it is connected to a mainland from which it extends.

The peninsula can be very large. Florida is a peninsula that separates the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.

Peninsula Examples

Largest Peninsula in the World

The Largest Peninsula in the World is the Arabian. It is surrounded on three sides by the  Gulf of Aden in the south, the Arabian Sea in the southeast, the Persian Gulf in the northeast, and the Red Sea in the west.

 It is located in the middle east. The peninsula contains seven nation-states: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar.

The Arabian Peninsula plays a large role in oil and gas extraction and refining.

Arabian Peninsula Map

Deccan Peninsula

Deccan Peninsula is the second largest peninsula in the world. is located in the southern part of central India. It is surrounded on three sides by the Arabian Sea in the West, the Bay of Bengal in the East, and the Indian Ocean in the South.

The peninsula is the largest in the world by a number of inhabitants.

Deccan Peninsula Map

Indochina Peninsula

The Indochina Peninsula is a part of southeast Asia.

The peninsula comprises countries - Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.

The Indochina Peninsula has the Andaman Sea to the west, the Malacca Strait to the southwest, and the China Sea to the east.

                                             Largest Peninsula in the world list

Name of Peninsula

Area (SqKm)

Bordering Seas

Countries

Arabian

3,237,500

The Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, Red Sea

Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Yemen

Indian (Deccan) Peninsula

2,072,000

Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal

South India

Indo-china Peninsula

1,938,743

China Sea, Bay of Bengal, Malacca Strait, Indian Ocean

Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula)

1,882,857

Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia

Alaska Peninsula

1,500,000

Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea

United States

Labrador Peninsula

1,400,000

Hudson Bay, Labrador Sea, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Atlantic Ocean

Canada

Scandinavian Peninsula

750,000

Baltic Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea

Norway, Sweden, north Finland

Balkan Peninsula

666,700

Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, Black Sea

Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, North Turkey

Iberian Peninsula

582,000

Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea

Andora, Portugal, Spain, France

Korean Peninsula

220,847

East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Korean Strait

North Korea, South Korea

Florida Peninsula

170,304

The Gulf of Mexico, Florida Strait, Atlantic Ocean

United States (Florida State)

Baja California Peninsula

143,390

The Pacific Ocean, Gulf of California

Mexico

Italian Peninsula

131,337

Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea

Italy, San Marino, Vatican City

Kola Peninsula

100,000

Barents Sea, White Sea

Russia

Sinai Peninsula

60,000

Suez Canal, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea

Egypt

Crimean Peninsula

27,000

The Black Sea, Sea of Azov

Ukraine (now Russia)

What is an Island

The parts of the landmass around which the expansion of water is found are called Islands. Islands can be small and large in size. They range in size from a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers.

When many islands are found in one place in the sea, they are called archipelago. Andaman, Lakshadweep, etc. are examples of archipelago in India.

There are a total of 247 islands in India of which 204 islands are located in the Bay of Bengal.

Largest Island in the world

Greenland is the largest island in the world. Greenland lies between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, and to the northeast of Canada and northwest of Iceland.

Greenland Map

Smallest Island in the world

Bishop rock is the smallest island in the world. It is part of the Isles of Scilly in the United Kingdom.

Bishop Rock is a rock off the British coast in the North Atlantic Ocean known for its lighthouse. The height of the Tower is 49 meters (161 ft).

 It is in the westernmost part of the archipelago, 45 km (28 mi) from the southwest tip of the Cornish peninsula of Great Britain. 

                                                          List of Island of the world

Island

The area in Square kilometers

Location

Greenland

2,130,800 square kilometres(822,700 square miles)


 

Between the Atlantic and Arctic  Oceans (Demark)

New Guinea

785,753 square kilometers (303,381 square miles)

Southwest Pacific (Indonesia) 

Borneo

748,168 square kilometers (288,869 square miles)

 

West mid-Pacific Ocean (comprises three countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei)

Madagascar

587,041 square kilometers (226,658 square miles)

 

East coast of Africa, in the Indian Ocean (Madagascar)

Baffin

507,451 square kilometers (195,928 square miles)

North Atlantic (The largest island of Canada)

Sumatra

443,065 square kilometers (171,068 square miles)

West of Java and south of the Malay Peninsula in the northeast Indian Ocean (Indonesia)

Honshu

225,800 square kilometers (87,200 square miles)

 

Between the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan (Japan)

Victoria

217,291 square kilometers (83,897 square miles)

Arctic Ocean (Canada)

Great Britain

209,331 square kilometers (80,823 square miles)

Northwest of the European continent (The biggest island in Europe)

Ellesmere

 

196,236 square kilometers (75,767 square miles)

 

Arctic Ocean (Canada)

What is gulf

The sea area surrounded by land on three sides and around which a lot of lands is surrounded is called the Gulf.

The Gulf almost looks as the ocean has taken a bite out of the coast. These bodies of water are usually deep and large.

The bay is usually named after the countries or cities, it is surrounded by.

Gulf of Mexico

The Gulf of Mexico is the largest gulf in the world. It borders Mexico, Cuba, and five states in the United States. It is largely surrounded by the North American continent. The Gulf of Mexico has formed about 300 million years ago as a result of plate tectonics. The area of gulf Mexico is 61500 sq miles.

Gulf of Maxico Map

Gulf of California

The Gulf of California is the smallest gulf in the world. The Gulf of California, also known as the Sea of Cortez. The Gulf of California separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. Parts of the Gulf of California are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Gulf of California Map

What is Pass

The wide narrow and natural transport route found in the middle of the mountains through which the mountains can be crossed is called the Pass.

Highest mountain pass in the world

Umling La is the highest motorable pass in the world at 5,882 m (19,300 feet). It connects Chisum and Demchok villages. It is located in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir. It is about 235 km from Leh. 

Earlier Khardung La mountain pass was considered to be the world’s highest mountain pass. Khardung La is a mountain pass in the Leh district of the Indian union territory of Ladakh.

                                              List of Mountain Passes in India

Pass

Location

Nathu La Pass

Sikkim (It connects the Indian state of Sikkim to the Tibet Autonomous Region of China)

Shipki La Pass

Himachal Pradesh (It connects Shimla to Tibet)

Jelep La Pass

Sikkim.

Khardung La

Ladakh

Thang La / Taglang La

Ladakh

Chang-La

Ladakh 

Bara-La/ Bara- Lacha La

Jammu and Kashmir (It connects Manali and Leh).

Mana Pass: Uttarakhand-Tibet

Greater Himalayas (It connects Tibet with Uttarakhand) 

Niti Pass

Uttarakhand (It connects Uttarakhand with Tibet) 

Rohtang Pass: 

Himachal Pradesh (It connects Kullu, Spiti, and Lahaul)

Bomdi-La: Arunachal Pradesh-Lhasa

Arunachal Pradesh (It connects Arunachal Pradesh with Lhasa, the capital city of Tibet)

Dihang pass: 

Arunachal Pradesh (It connects Arunachal Pradesh with Myanmar (Mandalay))

Diphu pass: 

Arunachal Pradesh (This pass disputed the tripoint borders of India, China, and Myanmar)

Pangsau Pass

Arunachal Pradesh  (It connects Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar)

 

Banihal Pass 

Jammu and Kashmir (It is situated in the Pir- Panjal Range. It connects Banihal with Qazigund)

Zoji La

Jammu Kashmir (It connects Srinagar with Kargil and Leh)

Burzil pass

Jammu Kashmir (It connects Astore Valley of Kashmir with the Deosai Plains of Ladakh)

Pir-Panjal Pass

Jammu Kashmir (It connects Jammu to Srinagar)

Bhor Ghat

 

Thal Ghat

 

Pal Ghat

The mountain pass is located between Nilgiri Hills (Tamil Nadu) in the north and Anaimalai Hills (Kerala) 

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