UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Examination

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) conducts a competitive examination for recruitment and selection to the post of Geologist, Geophysicist, and Chemist Group 'A' in GSI and Junior Hydro-geologist (Scientist 'B'), Group 'A' for Central Ground Water Board. Interested and Eligible candidates can apply for the UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Exam through the official website.

Eligibility Criteria for UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Exam


A candidate must be either: 

(a) a Citizen of India, or 

(b) a subject of Nepal, or 

(c) a subject of Bhutan, or 

(d) a Tibetan refugee who came over to India before the 1st January 1962 with the intention of permanently settling in India. or 

(e) a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka or East African Countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, and Ethiopia or from Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India. Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c), (d), and (e) above shall be a person in whose favor a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India. A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary may be admitted to the Examination but the offer of appointment may be given only after the necessary eligibility certificate has been issued to him/her by the Government of India. 

Educational Qualification:

(i) For Geologists Gr 'A' in Geological Survey of India:

(a) Master's degree in Geological Science or Geology or Applied Geology or Geo-Exploration or Mineral Exploration or Engineering Geology or Marine Geology or Earth Science and Resources Management or Oceanography and Coastal Areas Studies or Petroleum Geosciences or Petroleum 6  Exploration or Geochemistry or Geological Technology or Geophysical Technology from a University incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or an educational institution established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed university under section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 (3 of 1956).

(b) For Geophysicists Gr ' A ' in Geological Survey of India 

M.Sc. in Physics or Applied Physics or M.Sc. (Geophysics) or Integrated M.Sc. (Exploration Geophysics) or M.Sc (Applied Geophysics) or M.Sc. (Marine Geophysics) or M.Sc. (Tech.) (Applied Geophysics) from a University incorporated by an Act of Parliament or State Legislature in India or other educational institutes established by an Act of the Parliament or declared to be deemed universities under the University Grants Commission Act, 1956. 

(c) For Chemists Gr 'A' in Geological Survey of India 

M.Sc. in Chemistry or Applied Chemistry or Analytical Chemistry from a University incorporated by an Act of Parliament or State Legislature or other educational Institutes established by an Act of the Parliament or declared to be deemed Universities under section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 i.e. recognized University. 

(ii) (a) For Junior Hydrogeologists (Scientist B), Group 'A' in Central Ground Water Board.

(a) Master’s degree in Geology or Applied Geology or Marine Geology from a University incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other Educational Institutes established by an act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as Universities under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956; or 

(b) Master's degree in Hydrogeology from a recognized University. 

Age Limit

For Geologist and Geophysicist and Chemist (Group 'A') in the Geological Survey of India, an attached office of the Ministry of Mines, you must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 32 years on the first day of the month of January of the year in which the examination is to be held.

For Jr. Hydrogeologist (Scientist B) (Group A) in Central Groundwater Board, you must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained at the age of 35 years on 1st January of the year in which the examination is to be held.

The upper age limit is relaxable in certain cases.

There is an age relaxation of five years for ex-servicemen category candidates and Scheduled Caste/Scheduled tribal. For the OBC category, it is three years while for deaf-mute, blind, and orthopedically disabled category applicants, it is 10 years.

UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Examination Selection  Process

UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Examination Selection Process consists of three stages. The three stages are given below -

(i) Stage-I: Preliminary Examination 

(ii) Stage-II: Main Examination 

(iii) Stage-III: Personality Test.

Plan of Examination 

1. The Examination shall be conducted according to the following plan:—

(i) Stage-I: Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination (Objective Type Papers) for the selection of candidates for the Stage-II: Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination;

(ii) Stage-II: Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination (Descriptive Type Papers) and

(iii) Stage-III: Personality Test

2. The detailed scheme and syllabi of the Combined Geo-Scientist Examination are as under:

A. Stage-I: Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination [Objective-type]:-

The Examination shall comprise of two papers.

Stream-I: Geologist  & Jr. Hydrogeologist



Maximum Marks

Paper-I: General Studies

2 Hours

100 Marks

Paper-II: Geology/Hydrogeology

2 Hours

300 Marks


400 Marks

Stream-II: Geophysicist



Maximum Marks

Paper-I: General Studies

2 Hours

100 Marks

Paper-II: Geophysics

2 Hours

300 Marks


400 Marks

Stream-III: Chemist



Maximum Marks

Paper-I: General Studies

2 Hours

100 Marks

Paper-II: Chemistry

2 Hours

300 Marks


400 Marks

Note-4: The Commission will draw a list of candidates to be qualified for Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination based on the criterion of minimum qualifying marks in General Studies Paper (Paper-I) and Geo-Scientist Stream specific paper (Paper-II) of Preliminary Examination.

3. The Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination will consist of three conventional type papers for each stream. Conventional Type papers must be answered in English only. The question paper will be set in English only. The detailed scheme of Stage-II is as follows:-

B. Stage-II: Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination [Descriptive-type]:-

The Examination shall comprise of three papers in each stream.

Stream-I: Geologist



Maximum Marks

Paper-I: Geology

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-II: Geology

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-III: Geology

3 Hours

200 Marks


600 Marks

Stream-II: Geophysicist



Maximum Marks

Paper-I: Geophysics

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-II: Geophysics

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-III: Geophysics

3 Hours

200 Marks


600 Marks

Stream-III: Chemist



Maximum Marks

Paper-I: Chemistry

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-II: Chemistry

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-III: Chemistry

3 Hours

200 Marks


600 Marks

Stream-IV: Jr. Hydrogeologist



Maximum Marks

Paper-I: Geology

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-II: Geology

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-III: Hydrogeology

3 Hours

200 Marks


600 Marks

  • Candidates competing for selection to the posts of geologists, Geophysicists, Chemists, and Junior Hydrogeologist will be required to appear in all the subjects mentioned against the respective category above.
  • Candidates competing for selection for both the posts of Geologist and Jr. Hydrogeologists will be required to appear in all the subjects mentioned against Categories 1 and 4 above.

  • If any candidate failed to appear in any one or more of the above papers, meant for written examination for selection to the post of Geologist, Geophysicist, Chemist, their candidature shall stand rejected and part of the written examination appeared by them shall not be evaluated and counted for any purpose.

2) Interview/Personality Test: The Test carries 200 marks.  The candidate will be interviewed by a Board of competent and unbiased observers who will have before them a record of their career. The object of the interview is to assess its suitability for the posts for which they have completed. Special attention will be paid in the Personality Test to assessing the candidate’s capacity for leadership, initiative and intellectual curiosity, tact and other social qualities, mental and physical energy, powers of practical application, the integrity of character, and aptitude for adapting themselves to the field life.

3) Document Verification: Verification of eligibility conditions with reference to original documents is taken up only after the candidate is qualified for the Interview/ Personality Test

Syllabus of UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Examination

Paper-I in General Studies of Stage-I is common for all streams and its standard will be such as may be expected of a science graduate. Paper-II of Stage-I (Stream specific) and 3 compulsory papers of Stage-II each on Geology, Geophysics, Chemistry, and Hydrogeology subjects will be approximate of the M.Sc. degree standard of an Indian University and questions will generally be set to test the candidate’s grasp of the fundamentals in each subject. There will be no practical examination in any of the subjects

Syllabus of Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination 

Stage-I (Objective Type)

Paper-I: General Studies (Common for all streams)

  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography -Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance -Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity, and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization
  • General Science

Stage-I (Objective Type)

Paper-II: Geology/Hydrogeology

1. Physical Geology 

Principle of uniformitarianism; origin, differentiation and internal structure of the Earth; the origin of the atmosphere; earthquakes and volcanoes; continental drift, sea-floor spreading, isostasy, orogeny, and plate tectonics; geological action of rivers, wind, glaciers, waves; erosional and depositional landforms; weathering processes and products. 

2. Structural Geology

Stress, strain, and rheological properties of rocks; planar and linear structures; classification of folds and faults; Mohr's circle and criteria for failure of rocks; ductile and brittle shear in rocks; study of toposheets, V-rules, and outcrop patterns; stereographic projections of structural elements.

3. Mineralogy

Elements of symmetry, notations, and indices; Bravais lattices; chemical classification of minerals; isomorphism, polymorphism, solid solution and exsolution; silicate structures; physical and optical properties of common rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, and quartz.

4. Igneous Petrology

Magma types and their evolution; IUGS classification of igneous rocks; forms, structures, and textures of igneous rocks; applications of binary and ternary phase diagrams in petrogenesis; magmatic differentiation and assimilation; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, komatiites, and alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamprophyre and nepheline syenite).

5. Metamorphic Petrology

Limits, types, and controls of metamorphism; metamorphic structures - slate, schist, and gneiss; metamorphic textures- pre, syn, and post tectonic porphyroblasts; the concept of the metamorphic zone, isograd, and facies; geothermal gradients, facies series, and plate tectonics.

6. Sedimentology

Origin of sediments; sedimentary textures, grain-size scale; primary sedimentary structures; classification of sandstone and carbonate rocks; siliciclastic depositional environments and sedimentary facies; diagenesis of carbonate sediments.

7. Paleontology

Fossils and processes of fossilization; the concept of species and binomial nomenclature; morphology and classification of invertebrates (Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods, and Cephalopods); evolution in Equidae and Hominidae; microfossils-Foraminifera, Ostracoda; Gondwana flora.

8. Stratigraphy

Law of superposition; stratigraphic nomenclature - lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and chronostratigraphy; Archaean cratonic nuclei of Peninsular India (Dharwar, Singhbhum, and Aravalli cratons); Proterozoic mobile belts (Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi and the Eastern Ghats); Purana sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic stratigraphy of India- Spiti, Kashmir, Damodar valley, Kutch, Trichinopoly, Siwaliks, and Indo-Gangetic alluvium.

9. Economic Geology

Properties of mineral deposits- form, mineral assemblage, texture, rock ore association, and relationship; magmatic, sedimentary, metamorphic, hydrothermal, supergene, and weathering-related processes of ore formation; processes of formation of coal and petroleum; distribution and geological characteristics of major mineral and hydrocarbon deposits of India.

10. Hydrogeology

Groundwater occurrence and aquifer characteristics, porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity; Darcy's Law in homogenous and heterogeneous media; Bernoulli equation, Reynold's number; composition of groundwater; application of H and O isotopes in groundwater studies; artificial recharge of groundwater.

Stage-I (Objective Type) 

Paper-II: Geophysics  

1. Solid Earth Geophysics

Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar system: origin, formation, and characteristics of planets, Earth: shape and rotation. Gravity and magnetic fields of the earth. Geomagnetism, elements of earth's magnetism, Rock and mineral magnetism, Elastic waves, types and their propagation characteristics, the internal structure of the earth, a variety of physical properties in the interior of the earth. Plate tectonics, Earthquakes, and their causes, focal depth, epicenter, Intensity and Magnitude scales, Energy of earthquakes, Seismicity.

2. Mathematical Methods in Geophysics

Elements of vector analysis, Vector algebra, Properties of scalars, vectors and tensors, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss's divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem. Matrices, Eigenvalues, and Eigenvectors and their applications in geophysics. Newton's Law of gravitation, Gravity potential, and gravity fields due to bodies of different geometric shapes. Basic Forces of Nature and their strength: Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Strong, and Weak forces. Conservation Laws in Physics: Energy, Linear, and angular momentum. Rigid body motion and moment of inertia. Basics of the special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformation.

Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition of inversion, and application to Geophysics. Forward and Inverse problems. Probability theory, Random variables, binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions. Linear algebra, Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second order. Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave, and heat equations in two and three dimensions). Elements of numerical techniques: the root of functions, interpolation, and extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson's rule, solution of the first-order differential equation using the Runge-Kutta method, Introduction to finite difference and finite element methods.

3. Electromagnetism

Electrostatic and magnetostatic fields, Coulomb's law, Electrical permittivity, and dielectric constant, Lorentz force, and their applications. Ampere's law, Biot and Savart's law, Gauss’s Theorem, Poisson's equation. Laplace's equation: solution of Laplace's equation in Cartesian coordinates, use of Laplace's equation in the solutions of geophysical and electrostatic problems.

Displacement current, Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Maxwell's equations. Boundary conditions. Wave equation, plane electromagnetic waves in free space, dielectric and conducting media, electromagnetic vector, and scalar potentials.

4. Geophysical Prospecting

Elements of geophysical methods: Principles, data reduction, and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, and well logging methods. Fundamentals of seismic methods: Fermat’s Principle, Snell’s Law, Energy portioning, Reflection and transmission coefficients, Reflection and Refraction from layered media. Signals and systems, sampling theorem, aliasing effect, Fourier series and periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its application, Laplace transforms Convolution, Auto, and cross-correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function, unit step function.

5. Remote Sensing and Thermodynamics

Fundamentals of remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum, energy frequency-wavelength relationship, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Wien’s Law, electromagnetic energy, and its interactions in the atmosphere and with terrain features. Planck’s Radiation Law. Laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potential.

6. Nuclear Physics and Radiometry

Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin, and parity; Binding energy, semi-empirical mass formula; Fission and fusion. Principles of radioactivity, alpha, beta, and gamma decay Photoelectric and Compton Effect, Pair Production, radioactivity decay law, the radioactivity of rocks and minerals, Radiation Detectors: Ionization chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter, and Gamma-ray spectrometer. Matter Waves and wave-particle duality, Electron spin, Spectrum of Hydrogen, helium, and alkali atoms.

Stage-I (Objective Type) 

Paper-II: Chemistry

1. Chemical periodicity

Schrödinger equation for the H-atom. Radial distribution curves for 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d orbitals. Electronic configurations of multi-electron atoms.

Periodic table, group trends, and periodic trends in physical properties. Classification of elements on the basis of electronic configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristics of s, p, d, and f block elements. Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, atomic radii, ionic radii, covalent radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, and electronegativity. Group trends and periodic trends in these properties in respect of s-, p- and d-block elements.

General trends of variation of electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, magnetic properties, catenation, and catalytic properties, oxidation states, aqueous and redox chemistry in common oxidation states, properties and reactions of important compounds such as hydrides, halides, oxides, oxy-acids, complex chemistry in respect of s-block and p-block elements.

2. Chemical bonding and structure

Ionic bonding: Size effects, radius ratio rules, and their limitations. Packing of ions in crystals, lattice energy, Born-Landé equation and its applications, Born-Haber cycle, and its applications. Solvation energy, polarizing power, and polarizability, ionic potential, Fagan's rules. Defects in solids.

Covalent bonding: Valence Bond Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, hybridization. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.

Coordinate bonding: Werner theory of coordination compounds, double salts, and complex salts. Ambidentate and polydentate ligands, chelate complexes. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds. Coordination numbers, Geometrical isomerism. Stereoisomerism in square planar and octahedral complexes.

3. Acids and bases

Chemical and ionic equilibrium. Strengths of acids and bases. Ionization of weak acids and bases in aqueous solutions, application of Ostwald's dilution law, ionization constants, ionic product of water, pH-scale, the effect of temperature on pH, buffer solutions and their pH values, buffer action & buffer capacity; different types of buffers and Henderson's equation.

4. Theoretical basis of quantitative inorganic analysis

Volumetric Analysis: Equivalent weights, different types of solutions, normal and molar solutions. Primary and secondary standard substances.

General principles of different types of titrations: i) acid-base, ii) redox, iii) complexometric, iv) Precipitation. Types of indicators - i) acid-base, ii) redox iii) metal-ion indicators.

5. Kinetic theory and the gaseous state

Kinetic theory of gases, the average kinetic energy of translation, Boltzmann constant, and absolute scale of temperature. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds. Calculations of average, root mean square, and most probable velocities.

Collision diameter; collision number and mean free path; frequency of binary collisions; wall collision and rate of effusion.

6. Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium

First law and its applications to chemical problems. Thermodynamic functions. Total differentials and state functions. Free expansion, Joule Thomson coefficient, and inversion temperature. Hess’ law.

Applications of Second law of thermodynamics. Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A), Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium, and spontaneity of chemical processes.

7. Solutions of non-electrolytes

Colligative properties of solutions, Raoult's Law, relative lowering of vapor pressure, osmosis and osmotic pressure; elevation of boiling point, and depression of freezing point of solvents. The solubility of gases in liquids and solid solutions.

8. Electrochemistry

The cell constant, specific conductance, and molar conductance. Kohlrausch's law of independent migration of ions, ion conductance, and ionic mobility. Equivalent and molar conductance at infinite dilution. Debye-Hückel theory. Application of conductance measurements. Conductometric titrations. Determination of transport number by moving boundary method.

9. Basic organic chemistry

Delocalized chemical bond, resonance, conjugation, hyperconjugation, hybridization, orbital pictures of bonding sp3, sp2, sp: C-C, C-N, and C-O system), bond polarization, and bond polarizability. Reactive intermediates: General methods of formation, relative stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions, and free radicals.

10. Stereochemistry

Configuration and chirality (simple treatment of elements of symmetry), optical isomerism of compounds containing two to three stereogenic centers, R, S nomenclature, geometrical isomerism in compounds containing two C=C double bonds (E, Z naming), and simple cyclic systems, Newman projection (ethane and substituted ethane).

11. Types of organic reactions

Aliphatic substitution reactions: SN1, SN2 mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic substitutions. Effect of substrate structure, attacking nucleophile, leaving group and reaction medium, and competitive reactions.

Elimination reactions: E1, E2, mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic eliminations. Effect of substrate structure, attacking the base, leaving group, reaction medium and competitive reactions, the orientation of the double bond, Saytzeff, and Hoffman rules.

Addition reactions: Electrophilic, nucleophilic, and radical addition reactions at carbon-carbon double bonds.

Electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution: Electrophilic (halogenation, sulphonation, nitration, Friedel-Crafts alkylation, and acylation), nucleophilic (simple SNAr, SN1, and aryne reactions).

12. Molecular Rearrangements

Acid induced rearrangement and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements. Neighboring group participation.

Syllabus of Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination 

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) 

Geology: Paper-I

Section A:  Physical Geomorphology and Remote Sensing

Introduction: Development, Scope, Geomorphic concepts, Types, and Tools; Landforms: Role of Lithology, peneplaination, endogenous and exogenous forces responsible, climatic and Tectonic factors and rejuvenation of landforms; Denudational processes: Weathering, erosion, transportation, weathering products, and soils – profiles, types, duricrusts; Hillslopes: Their characteristics and development, fluvial processes on hillslopes; River and drainage basin: Drainage pattern, network characteristics, Valleys and their development, processes of river erosion, transportation and deposition; Landforms produced by geomorphic agents: Fluvial, Coastal, Glacial and Aeolian landforms; Geomorphic indicators of neotectonic movements: Stream channel morphology changes, drainage modifications, fault reactivation, Uplift – subsidence pattern in coastal areas; Applied Geomorphology: Application in various fields of earth sciences viz. Mineral prospecting, Geohydrology, Civil Engineering, and Environmental studies; Geomorphology of India: Geomorphical features and zones

Electromagnetic radiation – characteristics, remote sensing regions, and bands; General orbital and sensor characteristics of remote sensing satellites; Spectra of common natural objects – soil, rock, water, and vegetation. Aerial photos – types, scale, resolution, properties of aerial photos, stereoscopic parallax, relief displacement; Principles of photogrammetry; Digital image processing - characteristics of remote sensing data, preprocessing, enhancements, classification; Elements of photo and imagery pattern and interpretation, application in Geology; Remote sensing applications in interpreting structure and tectonics, Lithological mapping, mineral resources, natural hazards, and disaster mitigation, groundwater potentials, and environmental monitoring. Landsat, Skylab, Seasat, and other foreign systems of satellites and their interpretation for geological and other studies; Space research in India – Bhaskara and IRS systems and their applications, Thermal IR remote sensing and its applications, Microwave remote sensing and its applications. Principles and components of Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing data integration with GIS, applications of GIS in various geological studies.

Section B: Structural Geology

Principle of geological mapping and map reading, projection diagrams. Stress-strain relationships for elastic, plastic, and viscous materials. Measurement of strain in deformed rocks. The behavior of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Structural analysis of folds, cleavages, lineations, joints, and faults. Superposed deformation. Mechanism of folding, faulting, and progressive deformation. Shear Zones: Brittle and ductile shear zones, geometry and products of shear zones; Mylonites and cataclastic, their origin and significance.The time relationship between crystallization and deformation. Unconformities and basement-cover relations. Structural behavior of igneous plutons, diapirs, and salt domes. Introduction to petrol fabric analysis.

Section C: Sedimentology 

Classification of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary textures-grain size, roundness, sphericity, shape and fabric; quantitative grain size analysis; sediment transport and deposition- fluid and sediment gravity flows, laminar and turbulent flows, Reynold’s number, Froude number, grain entrainment, Hjulstrom diagram, bedload and suspension load transport; primary sedimentary structures; penecontemporaneous deformation structure; biogenic structures; principles and application of paleocurrent analysis; composition and significance of different types of sandstone, limestone, banded iron formation, mudstone, conglomerate; carbonate diagenesis and dolomitisation; sedimentary environments and facies-facies models for fluvial, glacial, deltaic, siliciclastic shallow and deep marine environments; carbonate platforms- types and facies models; sedimentation in major tectonic settings; principles of sequence stratigraphy-concepts and factors controlling base level changes, parasequence, clinoform, systems tract, unconformity and sequence boundary. 

Section D: Paleontology 

The fossil record and geological time scale; modes of preservation of fossils and concept of taphonomy; body- and ichnofossils, species concept, organic evolution, Ediacaran Fauna; morphology and time range of Graptolites, Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods, Cephalopods, Echinoids and Corals; evolutionary trends in Trilobites, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods; micropaleontology- methods of preparation of microfossils, the morphology of microfossil groups 20  (Foraminifera, Ostracoda), fossil spores, pollen, and dinoflagellates; Gondwana plant fossils and their significance; vertebrate life through ages, evolution in Proboscidea, Equidae and Hominidae; applications of paleontological data in stratigraphy, paleoecology, and paleoclimatology; mass extinctions.

Section E. Stratigraphy 

Principles of stratigraphy-code of stratigraphic nomenclature of India; lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, and magnetostratigraphy; principles of stratigraphic correlation; characteristics of Archean granite-greenstone belts; Indian stratigraphy- geological evolution of Archean nucleii (Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum, Aravalli and Bundelkhand); Proterozoic mobile belt Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, Southern Granulite Terrain, Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi Belt, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt; Proterozoic sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic stratigraphy- Paleozoic (Spiti, Kashmir, and Kumaon), Mesozoic (Spiti, Kutch, Narmada Valley, and Trichinopoly), Gondwana Supergroup, Cenozoic (Assam, Bengal basins, Garhwal-Shimla Himalayas); Siwaliks; boundary problems in Indian stratigraphy. 

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) 

Geology: Paper-II

Section A. Mineralogy 

Symmetry, motif, Miller indices; the concept of the unit cell and Bravais lattices; 32 crystal classes; types of bonding, Pauling’s rules, and coordination polyhedra; crystal imperfections-defects, twinning and zoning; polymorphism, pseudomorphism, isomorphism, and solid solution; physical properties of minerals; polarising microscope and accessory plate; optical properties of minerals- double refraction, polarisation, pleochroism, a sign of elongation, interference figure and optic sign; structure, composition, physical and optical properties of major rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet, aluminosilicates, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, clay, silica, and spinel group. 

Section B. Geochemistry and isotope geology 

Chemical composition and characteristics of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere; geochemical cycles; meteorites-types and composition; Goldschmidt’s classification of elements; fractionation of elements in minerals/rocks; Nernst’s partition coefficient (compatible and incompatible elements), Nernst-Berthelot partition coefficient and bulk partition coefficient; Fick’s laws of diffusion and activity composition relation (Raoult's and Henry’s law); application of trace elements in petrogenesis; principles of equilibrium and Rayleigh fractionation; REE patterns, Eh and pH diagrams and mineral stability. Half-life and decay equation; dating of minerals and rocks with potassium-argon, rubidium-strontium, uranium-lead and samarium-neodymium isotopes; petrogenetic implications of samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium systems; stable isotope geochemistry of carbon, oxygen and sulfur and their applications in geology; monazite chemical dating. 

Section C. Igneous petrology 

Viscosity, temperature and pressure relationships in magmas; IUGS classification of plutonic and volcanic rocks; nucleation and growth of minerals in magmatic rocks, development of igneous textures; magmatic evolution (differentiation, assimilation, mixing and mingling); types of mantle melting (batch, fractional and dynamic); binary (albite-anorthite, forsterite-silica and diopsideanorthite) and ternary (diopside-forsterite-silica, diopside-forsterite-anorthite and nephelinekalsilite-silica) phase diagrams and relevance to magmatic crystallization; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, ophiolite suite, komatiites, syenites, bonnets, anorthosites, and layered complexes, and alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre); mantle metasomatism, hotspot magmatism and large igneous provinces of India. 

Section D. Metamorphic petrology

Limits and Physico-chemical controls (pressure, temperature, fluids and bulk rock composition) of metamorphism; concept of zones, facies, isograds and facies series, geothermal gradients and tectonics of orogenic belts; structures, microstructures and textures of regional and contact metamorphic rocks; representation of metamorphic assemblages (ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams); equilibrium concept in thermodynamics; laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy, entropy, Gibb’s free energy, chemical potential, fugacity and activity; tracing the chemical reactions in P-T space, phase rule and mineralogical phase rule in multi-component system; Clausius-Clapeyron equation and 21  slopes of metamorphic reactions; heat flow, diffusion and mass transfer; Fourier’s law of heat conduction; geothermobarometry; mass and energy change during fluid-rock interactions; charnockite problem, formation of skarns, progressive and retrogressive metamorphism of pelitic, calcareous and basic rocks; P-T-t path and tectonic setting. 

Section E. Geodynamics 

Phase transitions and seismic discontinuities in the Earth; seismic waves and the relation between Vp, Vs, and density; seismic and petrological Moho; rheology of rocks and fluids (Newtonian and nonNewtonian liquids); rock magnetism and its origin; polarity reversals, polar wandering and supercontinent cycles; continental drift, seafloor spreading; gravity and magnetic anomalies of ocean floors and their significance; mantle plumes and their origin; plate tectonics- types of plate boundaries and their inter-relationship; heat flow and heat production of the crust.  

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) 

Geology: Paper-III 

Section A. Economic geology 

Ore minerals and industrial minerals; physical and optical properties of ore minerals; ore textures and paragenesis; characteristics of mineral deposits- spatial and temporal distribution, rock-ore association; syngenetic and epigenetic deposits, forms of ore bodies, stratiform and strata-bound deposits; ore-forming processes- source and migration of ore constituents and ore fluid, mechanism of ore deposition; magmatic and pegmatitic deposits (chromite, Ti-magnetite, diamond, Cu-Ni sulphide, PGE, REE, muscovite, rare metals); hydrothermal deposits (porphyry Cu-Mo, greisen SnW, skarn, VMS and SEDEX type sulphide deposits, orogenic gold); sedimentary deposits (Fe, Mn, phosphorite, placer); supergene deposits (Cu, Al, Ni and Fe); metamorphic and metamorphosed deposits (Mn, graphite); fluid inclusions in ore mineral assemblage- physical and chemical properties, microthermometry; stable isotope (S, C, O, H) in ore genesis- geothermometry, source of ore constituents; global tectonics and mineralisation. 

Section B. Indian mineral deposits and mineral economics 

Distribution of mineral deposits in Indian shield; geological characteristics of important industrial mineral and ore deposits in India- chromite, diamond, muscovite, Cu-Pb-Zn, Sn-W, Au, Fe-Mn, bauxite; minerals used in refractory, fertilizer, ceramic, cement, glass, paint industries; minerals used as abrasive, filler; building stones. Strategic, critical and essential minerals; India’s status in mineral production; co-products and byproducts; consumption, substitution, and conservation of minerals; National Mineral Policy; Mineral Concession Rules; marine mineral resources and laws of the sea. 

Section C. Mineral exploration 

Stages of exploration; scope, objectives, and methods of prospecting, regional exploration, and detailed exploration; geological, geochemical and geobotanical methods; litho-, bio-, soil geochemical surveys, mobility and dispersion of elements, geochemical anomalies; ore controls and guides; pitting, trenching, drilling; sampling, assaying, ore reserve estimation; categorization of ore reserves; geophysical methods- ground and airborne surveys; gravity, magnetic, electrical and seismic methods of mineral exploration. 

Section D. Fuel geology and Engineering geology 

Coal and its properties; proximate and ultimate analysis; different varieties and ranks of coal; the concept of coal maturity, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal; the origin of coal, coalification process; lithotypes, microlithotypes, and maceral groups of coal; mineral and organic matter in coal; lignite and coal deposits of India; origin, migration, and entrapment of natural hydrocarbons; characteristics of the source and reservoir rocks; structural, stratigraphic and mixed traps; geological, geochemical and geophysical methods of hydrocarbon exploration; petroliferous basins of India; geological characteristics and genesis of major types of U deposits and their distribution in India. Engineering properties of rocks; geological investigations in construction of dams, reservoirs, tunnels, bridges, highways, and coastal protection structures; geologic considerations of construction materials. 

Section E. Environmental geology and Natural hazards 

Stefan-Boltzmann equation and planetary temperature; cause and effects of global climate change; Earth’s radiation budget; greenhouse gases and effect; examples of positive and negative feedback 22  mechanisms; the biogeochemical cycle of carbon; geological investigations of nuclear waste disposal sites; marginal marine environments- estuaries, mangroves, and lagoons; ozone hole depletion, ocean acidification, coral bleaching, Milankovitch cycle, sea-level rise, eutrophication, and acid rain; environmental impacts of urbanization, mining and hydropower projects; water pollution, waterlogging, and soil erosion; Himalayan glaciers; causes and consequences of earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami, floods, landslides, coastal erosion, droughts, and desertification; application of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in environmental management. 

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) 


Section A. Occurrence and distribution of groundwater 

Origin of water on Earth; global water cycle and budget; residence time concept, geologic formations as aquifers; confined and unconfined aquifers; groundwater table mapping and piezometric nests; porosity, void ratio, effective porosity, and representative porosity range; primary and secondary porosities; groundwater zonation; specific retention, specific yield; groundwater basins; springs. 

Section B. Groundwater movement and well hydraulics 

Groundwater flow concepts; Darcy's Law in isotropic and anisotropic media and validity; water flow rates, direction and water volume in aquifers; permeability and hydraulic conductivity and ranges in representative rocks; Bernoulli equation; determination of hydraulic conductivity in field and laboratory; the concept of groundwater flow through dispersion and diffusion; transmissivity and aquifer thickness. 

Section C. Water wells and groundwater levels 

Unidirectional and radial flow to a well (steady and unsteady); well flow near aquifer boundaries; methods for constructing shallow wells, drilling wells, well completion; testing wells, pumping test, slug tests for confined and unconfined aquifers; fluctuations in groundwater levels; streamflow and groundwater flows; groundwater level fluctuations; land subsidence; the impact of global climate change on groundwater. 

Section D. Groundwater exploration 

Surface investigation of groundwater- geologic, remote sensing, electrical resistivity, seismic, gravity and magnetic methods; sub-surface investigation of groundwater- test drilling, resistivity logging, spontaneous potential logging, radiation logging. 

Section E. Groundwater quality and management 

Groundwater composition, units of expression, mass-balance calculations; rock-water interaction (chemical equilibrium, free energy, redox reactions, and cation/anion exchanges), graphic representation of chemical data; groundwater hardness, microorganisms in groundwater; water quality standards; sea-water intrusion; groundwater issues due to urbanization; solid and liquid waste disposal and plume migration models; application of isotopes (H, C, O) in groundwater; concepts of artificial recharge methods; managing groundwater resources; groundwater basin investigations and management practices. 

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) 

Geophysics: Paper-I 


A1. Solid Earth Geophysics: 

Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar system: origin, characteristics of planets, Earth: rotation and figure, Geoid, Spheroid, and topography. Plate tectonics and Geodynamic processes, Thermal history and heat flow, Temperature variation in the earth, convection currents. Gravity field of earth and Isostasy. Geomagnetism, elements of earth's magnetism: Internal and External fields and their causes, Paleomagnetism, Polar wandering paths, Continental drift, Seafloor spreading, and its geophysical evidence. Elastic Waves, Body Waves, and the internal structure of the earth, a variety of physical properties in the interior of the earth, Adam-Williamson’s Equation. 

A2. Earthquake Seismology: 

Seismology, earthquakes, focal depth, epicenter, great Indian earthquakes, Intensity and Magnitude scales, Energy of earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, Elastic rebound theory, Types and Nature of faulting, Fault plane solutions, Seismicity and Seismotectonics of India, Frequency-Magnitude relation (b-values). Bulk and rigidity modulus, Lame’s Parameter, Seismic waves: types and their 23  propagation characteristics, absorption, attenuation, and dispersion. Seismic ray theory for spherically and horizontally stratified earth, basic principles of Seismic Tomography and receiver function analysis, Velocity structure, Vp/Vs studies, Seismic network and arrays, telemetry systems, Principle of electromagnetic seismograph, displacement meters, velocity meters, accelerometers, Broadband Seismometer, WWSSN stations, seismic arrays for detection of nuclear explosions. Earthquake prediction; dilatancy theory, short-, medium- and long- term predictions, Seismic micro zonation, Applications for engineering problems. 

A3. Mathematical methods in Geophysics: 

Elements of vector analysis, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss's divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem, Gravitational field, Newton's Law of gravitation, Gravitation potential and fields due to bodies of different geometric shapes, Coulomb's law, Electrical permittivity, and dielectric constant, Origin of Magnetic field, Ampere's law, Biot and Savart's law, Geomagnetic fields, Magnetic fields due to different type of structures, Solution of Laplace equation in Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates, Image theory, Electrical fields due to charge, point source, continuous charge distribution, and double layers, equipotential and line of force. Current and potential in the earth, basic concept, and equations of electromagnetic induction, Maxwell’s Equation, near and far 

A4. Geophysical Inversion: 

Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition and its application to Geophysics. Probability, Inversion with discrete and continuous models. Forward problems versus Inverse problems, direct and model-based inversions, Formulation of inverse problems, classification of inverse problems, least-square solutions and minimum norm solution, the concept of norms, Jacobian matrix, Condition number, Stability, non-uniqueness, and resolution of inverse problems, the concept of 'a priori' information, constrained linear least-squares inversion, review of matrix theory. Models and data spaces, data resolution matrix, model resolution matrix, Eigenvalues, and Eigenvectors, singular value decomposition (SVD), Gauss-Newton method, steepest descent (gradient) method, MarquardtLevenberg method. A probabilistic approach of inverse problems, maximum likelihood and stochastic inverse methods, Random search inversion (Monte-Carlo) Backus-Gilbert method, Bayesian Theorem, and Inversion. Global optimization techniques: genetic algorithm and simulated annealing methods. 


B1. Mathematical Methods of Physics: 

Dimensional analysis; Units and measurement; Vector algebra and vector calculus; Linear algebra, Matrices: Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; linear ordinary differential equations of the first and second-order; Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre, and Legendre); Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transform; Elementary probability theory, Random variables, Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions; Green's function; Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions); Elements of numerical techniques: the root of functions, interpolation, and extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson's rule, solution of the first-order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method; Tensors; Complex variables and analysis; Analytic functions; Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues and evaluation of integrals; Beta and Gamma functions. Operators and their properties; Least-squares fitting. 

B2. Electrodynamics: 

Electrostatics: Gauss' Law and its applications; Laplace and Poisson equations, Boundary value problems; Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere's theorem; Ampere's circuital law; Magnetic vector potential; Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction; Electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials; Uniqueness of electromagnetic potentials and concept of gauge: Lorentz and Coulomb gauges; Lorentz force; Charged particles in uniform and non-uniform electric and magnetic fields; Poynting theorem; Electromagnetic fields from Lienard-Wiechert potential of a moving charge; Bremsstrahlung radiation; Cerenkov radiation; Radiation due to oscillatory electric dipole; Condition for plasma existence; Occurrence of plasma; Magnetohydrodynamics; Plasma waves; Transformation of electromagnetic potentials; Lorentz condition; Invariance or covariance of Maxwell field equations in terms of 4 vectors; Electromagnetic field tensor; Lorentz transformation of electric and magnetic fields.

B3. Electromagnetic Theory: 

Maxwell's equations: it's differential and integral forms, physical significance; Displacement current; Boundary conditions; Wave equation, Plane electromagnetic waves in free space, non-conducting isotropic medium, conducting medium; Scalar and vector potentials; Reflection; the refraction of electromagnetic waves; Fresnel's Law; interference; coherence; diffraction and polarization; Lorentz invariance of Maxwell's equations; Transmission lines and waveguides. 

B4. Introductory Atmospheric and Space Physics: 

The neutral atmosphere; Atmospheric nomenclature; Height profile of atmosphere; Hydrostatic equation; Geopotential height; Expansion and contraction; Fundamental forces in the atmosphere; Apparent forces; Atmospheric composition; Solar radiation interaction with the neutral atmosphere; Climate change; Electromagnetic radiation and propagation of Waves: EM Radiation; Effects of the environment; Antennas: basic considerations, types. Propagation of waves: ground wave, skywave, and space wave propagation; troposcatter communication and extraterrestrial communication; The Ionosphere; Morphology of ionosphere: the D, E, and F-regions; Chemistry of the ionosphere Ionospheric parameters E and F region anomalies and irregularities in the ionosphere; Global Positioning Systems (GPS): overview of GPS system, augmentation services GPS system segment; GPS signal characteristics; GPS errors; multipath effects; GPS performance; a Satellite navigation system and applications. 

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) 

Geophysics: Paper-II 


A1. Potential Field (Gravity and Magnetic) Methods: 

Geophysical potential fields, Inverse-square law, Principles of Gravity and Magnetic methods, Global gravity anomalies, Newtonian and logarithmic potential, Laplace's equations for the potential field. Green's Function, Concept of gravity anomaly, Rock densities, factors controlling rock densities, determination of density, Earth's main magnetic field, origin, diurnal and secular variations of the field, Geomagnetic elements, the intensity of magnetization and induction, magnetic potential, and its relation to the field, units of measurement, the interrelationship between different components of magnetic fields, Poisson's relation, Magnetic susceptibility, factors controlling susceptibility. Magnetic Mineralogy: Hysteresis, rock magnetism, natural, and remnant magnetization, demagnetization effects. Principles of Gravity and Magnetic instruments, Plan of conducting gravity and magnetic surveys, Gravity, and Magnetic data reduction, Gravity bases, International Gravity formula, IGRF corrections. Concept of regional and residual anomalies and various methods of their separation, Edge Enhancement Techniques (Derivatives, Continuation, Analytical Signal, Reduced to Pole and Euler Deconvolution), ambiguity in potential field interpretation, Factors affecting magnetic anomalies, Application of gravity and magnetics in geodynamic, mineral exploration and environmental studies. Qualitative interpretation, Interpretation of gravity, and magnetic anomalies due to different geometry shaped bodies and modeling.

A2. Electrical and Electromagnetic methods: 

Electrical properties of rocks and minerals, concepts, and assumptions of horizontally stratified earth, anisotropy, and its effects on electrical fields, geoelectric and geological sections, D.C Resistivity method. Concept of the natural electric field, various electrode configurations, Profiling, and Sounding (VES). Types of Sounding curves, Equivalence, and Suppression, Concept of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). SP Method: Origin of SP, application of SP surveys. Induced Polarization (IP) Method: Origin of IP, Membrane and Electrode polarization, time and frequency domains of measurement, chargeability, percent frequency effect and metal factor, Application of IP surveys for mineral exploration. Electromagnetic methods, Passive and Active source methods, Diffusion equation, wave equation, and damped wave equation used in EM method, boundary conditions, skin depth, depth of investigation and depth of penetration, amplitude and phase relations, real and imaginary components, elliptical polarization, Principles of EM prospecting, various EM methods: Dip angle, Tuam, moving source-receiver methods-horizontal loop (Slingram), AFMAG, and VLF. Principles of Time Domain EM: INPUT method. EM Profiling and sounding, Interpretation of EM anomalies. Principle of EM scale modeling. Magnetotelluric methods: Origin and characteristics of MT fields, Instrumentation, Transverse Electric, and Transverse Magnetic Modes, 25  Static Shift. Dimensionality and Directionality analysis. Field Layout and interpretation of MT data and its applications. Principles of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). 

A3. Seismic Prospecting: 

Basic principles of seismic methods, Various factors affecting seismic velocities in rocks, Reflection, refraction, and Energy partitioning at an interface, Geometrical spreading, Reflection and refraction of wave phenomena in a layered and dipping media. Seismic absorption and anisotropy, Multichannel seismic (CDP) data acquisition (2D and 3D), sources of energy, Geophones, the geometry of arrays, different spread geometry, Instrumentation, digital recording. Different types of multiples, Travel time curves, corrections, Interpretation of data, bright spot, low-velocity layer, Data processing, static and dynamic (NMO and DMO) corrections, shot-receiver gather, foldage, multiplexing, and demultiplexing. Dix’s equation, Velocities: Interval, Average and RMS, Seismic resolution and Fresnel Zone, Velocity analysis and Migration techniques, Seismic Interpretation, Time and Depth Section, Fundamentals of VSP method, High-Resolution Seismic Surveys (HRSS). 

A4. Borehole Geophysics: 

Objectives of good logging, concepts of borehole geophysics, borehole conditions, properties of reservoir rock formations, formation parameters and their relationships-formation factor, porosity, permeability, formation water resistivity, water saturation, irreducible water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation, residual hydrocarbon saturation; Archie's and Humble's equations; principles, instrumentations, operational procedures and interpretations of various geophysical logs: SP, resistivity and micro resistivity, gamma-ray, neutron, sonic, temperature, caliper, and directional logs. Production logging, overlay and cross-plots of well-log data, determination of formation lithology, porosity, permeability, and oil-water saturation, sub-surface correlation and mapping, delineation of fractures; application of well-logging in hydrocarbon, groundwater, coal, metallic and non-metallic mineral exploration. 


B1. Classical Mechanics 

Inertial and non-inertial frames, Newton's laws; Pseudo forces; Central force motion; Two-body collisions, Scattering in laboratory and center-of-mass frames; Rigid body dynamics, Moment of inertia, Variational principle, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and equations of motion; Poisson brackets and canonical transformations; Symmetry, Invariance and conservation laws, Cyclic coordinates; Periodic motion, Small oscillations, and normal modes; Special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations, Relativistic kinematics, and mass-energy equivalence.

B2. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics 

Laws of thermodynamics and their significance; Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations; Chemical potential, Phase equilibria; Phase space, Micro- and macro- states; Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles, and partition functions; Free Energy and connection with thermodynamic quantities; First and second-order phase transitions; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, Quantum statistics, Ideal Fermi and Bose gases; Principle of detailed balance; Blackbody radiation and Planck's distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; Random walk and Brownian motion; Diffusion equation. 

B3. Atomic and Molecular Physics and Characterization of materials 

Quantum states of an electron in an atom; Electron spin; Stern-Gerlach experiment; Spectrum of Hydrogen, Helium and alkali atoms; Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen; Hyperfine structure and isotopic shift; Width of spectral lines; LS and JJ coupling; Zeeman, Paschen Back and Stark effects; Rotational, vibrational, electronic, and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules; FrankCondon principle; Thermal and optical properties of materials, Study of microstructure using SEM, Study of crystal structure using TEM, Resonance methods: Spin and applied magnetic field, Larmor precession, relaxation times - spin-spin relaxation, Spin-lattice relaxation, Electron spin resonance, g factor, Nuclear Magnetic resonance, line width, Motional narrowing, Hyperfine splitting; Nuclear Gamma Resonance: Principles of Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Line width, Resonance absorption, Isomer Shift, Quadrupole splitting. 

B4. Nuclear and Particle Physics 

Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy, Packing fraction, Semi-empirical mass formula; Liquid drop model; Fission and fusion, Nuclear reactor; Line 26  of stability, Characteristics of the nuclear forces, Nucleon-nucleon potential; Charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces; Isospin; Deuteron problem; Evidence of shell structure, Single-particle shell model and, its validity and limitations; Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decay and their selection rules; Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanisms, compound nuclei and direct reactions; Classification of fundamental forces; Elementary particles (quarks, baryons, mesons, leptons); Spin and parity assignments, strangeness; Gell Mann-Nishijima formula; C, P and T invariance and applications of symmetry arguments to particle reactions, Parity non-conservation in weak interaction; Relativistic kinematics. 

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) 

Geophysics: Paper-III


A1. Radiometric and Airborne Geophysics: 

Principles of radioactivity, radioactivity decay processes, units, the radioactivity of rocks and minerals, Instruments, Ionization chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter, Gamma-ray spectrometer, Radiometric prospecting for mineral exploration (Direct/Indirect applications), beach placers, titanium, zirconium, and rare-earths, radon studies in seismology and environmental applications. Airborne geophysical surveys (gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic, and radiometric), planning of surveys, flight path recovery methods. Applications in geological mapping, identification of structural features, and altered zones. 

A2. Marine Geophysics: 

Salinity, temperature, and density of seawater. Introduction to Sea-floor features: Physiography, divisions of the seafloor, continental shelves, slopes, and abyssal plains, growth, and decline of ocean basins, turbidity currents, the occurrence of mineral deposits and hydrocarbons in offshore. Geophysical surveys and instrumentation: Gravity, Magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, Sonobuoy surveys, Instrumentation used in ship-borne surveys, towing cable and fish, data collection and survey procedures, corrections, and interpretation of data. Oceanic magnetic anomalies, VineMathews hypothesis, geomagnetic time scale and dating seafloor, Oceanic heat flow, ocean ridges, basins, marginal basins, rift valleys. Seismic surveys, energy sources, Pinger, Boomer, Sparker, Air gun, Hydrophones, and steamer cabling. Data reduction and interpretation. Ocean Bottom Seismic surveys. Bathymetry, echo sounding, bathymetric charts, sea bed mapping. Navigation and Position-fixing methods. 

A3. Geophysical Signal Processing: 

Time Series, Types of signals, sampling theorem, aliasing effect, Fourier series of periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its properties, Discrete Fourier transform and FFT, Hilbert Transform, Convolution and Deconvolution, Auto and cross-correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function, unit step function. Time-domain windows, Z transform, and properties, Inverse Z transform. Poles and zeroes. Principles of digital filters, types of filters: recursive, non-recursive, time-invariant, Chebyshev, Butterworth, moving average, amplitude and phase response of filters, low pass, bandpass,, and high pass filters. Processing of Random Signals. Improvement of signal to noise ratio, source and geophone arrays as spatial filters. Earth as a low pass filter. 

A4. Remote Sensing and Geohydrology: 

Fundamental concepts of remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation spectrum, Interaction of electromagnetic energy and its interactions in atmosphere and surface of the earth, elements of photographic systems, reflectance and emittance, false-color composites, remote sensing platforms, flight planning, geosynchronous and sun-synchronous orbits, sensors, resolution, parallax and vertical exaggeration, relief displacement, mosaic, aerial photo interpretation, and geological application. Fundamentals of photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing, multi-spectral scanners, thermal scanners, microwave remote sensing, fundamentals of image processing, and interpretation for geological applications. Types of water-bearing formations, porosity, permeability, storage coefficient, specific storage, specific retention, specific yield, Different types of aquifers, vertical distribution of groundwater, General flow equation; the steady and unsteady flow of groundwater in unconfined and confined aquifers. 


B1. Solid State Physics and Basic Electronics 

The crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, Space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, Scanning, and transmission electron microscopes; Band theory of solids, conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, Specific heat: Einstein's and Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para, and Ferro; Elements of superconductivity; Meissner effect, Josephson junctions, and applications; Elementary ideas about high-temperature superconductivity. Semiconductor devices and circuits: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors; Devices and structures (p-n junctions, diodes, transistors, FET, JFET, and MOSFET, homo and heterojunction transistors, thermistors), Device characteristics, Frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic devices (solar cells, photodetectors, LEDs) Operational amplifiers, and their applications. 

B2. Laser systems 

Spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation. Coherence, Light amplification, and the relation between Einstein A and B coefficients. Rate equations for three and four-level systems. Lasers: Ruby, Nd-YAG, CO2, Dye, Excimer, Semiconductor. Laser cavity modes, Line shape function, and full width at half maximum (FWHM) for natural broadening, collision broadening, Doppler broadening; Saturation behavior of broadened transitions, Longitudinal, and transverse modes. Mode selection, ABCD matrices, and cavity stability criteria for confocal resonators. The quality factor, Expression for intensity for modes oscillating at random and mode-locked in phase. Methods of Q-switching and mode-locking. Optical fiber waveguides, Fiber characteristics.

 B3. Digital electronics, Radar systems, Satellite communications 

Digital techniques and applications: Boolean identities, de Morgan's theorems, Logic gates, and truth tables; Simple logic circuits: registers, counters, comparators, and similar circuits). A/D and D/A converters. Microprocessor: basics and architecture; Microcontroller basics. Combination and sequential logic circuits, Functional diagram, a Timing diagram of reading and write cycle, Data transfer techniques: serial and parallel. Fundamentals of digital computers. Radar systems, Signal and data processing, Surveillance Radar, Tracking radar, Radar antenna parameters. Fundamentals of satellite systems, Communication, and Orbiting satellites, Satellite frequency bands, Satellite orbit, and inclinations. Earth station technology. 

B4. Quantum Mechanics 

Wave-particle duality; Wave functions in coordinate and momentum representations; Commutators and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle; Schrodinger’s wave equation (time-dependent and time-independent); Eigenvalue problems: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, tunneling through a 1-D barrier; Motion in a central potential; Orbital angular momentum; Addition of angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Matrix representation; Dirac's bra and ket notations; Time-independent perturbation theory and applications; Variational method; WKB approximation; Time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's Golden Rule; Selection rules; Semi-classical theory of radiation; Elementary theory of scattering, Phase shifts, Partial waves, Born approximation; Identical particles, Pauli's exclusion principle, Spin-statistics connection; Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein Gordon and Dirac equations. 

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) Chemistry: Paper-I (Inorganic Chemistry) 

1. Inorganic solids: 

Defects, non-stoichiometric compounds and solid solutions, atom and ion diffusion, solid electrolytes. Synthesis of materials, monoxides of 3d-metals, higher oxides, complex oxides (conundrum, ReO3, spinel, perovskites), framework structures (phosphates, aluminophosphates, silicates, zeolites), nitrides and fluorides, chalcogenides, intercalation chemistry, semiconductors, molecular materials. 

2. Chemistry of coordination compounds: 

Isomerism, reactivity, and stability: Determination of configuration of cis- and trans- isomers by chemical methods. Labile and inert complexes, substitution reactions on square planar complexes, trans effect. Stability constants of coordination compounds and their importance in inorganic analysis. Structure and bonding: Elementary Crystal Field Theory: the splitting of configurations in octahedral, square planar and tetrahedral fields, crystal field stabilization energy, pairing energy. 28  Jahn-Teller distortion. Metal-ligand bonding, sigma and pi bonding in octahedral complexes and their effects on the oxidation states of transition metals. Orbital and spin magnetic moments, spin only moments and their correlation with effective magnetic moments, d-d transitions; LS coupling, spectroscopic ground states, selection rules for electronic spectral transitions; spectrochemical series of ligands, charge transfer spectra. 

3. Acid-base titrations: 

Titration curves for the strong acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base, and weak base-strong acid titrations, polyprotic acids, poly-equivalent bases, determining the equivalence point: theory of acid-base indicators, pH change range of indicator, selection of proper indicator. Principles used in the estimation of mixtures of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 (by acidimetry). 

4. Gravimetric Analysis: 

General principles: Solubility, solubility product and common ion effect, effect of temperature on the solubility; Salt hydrolysis, hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis. Stoichiometry, calculation of results from gravimetric data. Properties of precipitates. Nucleation and crystal growth, factors influencing completion of precipitation. Co-precipitation and postprecipitation, purification and washing of precipitates. Precipitation from homogeneous solution. A few common gravimetric estimations: chloride as silver chloride, sulfate as barium sulfate, aluminum as oxinate, and nickel as dimethyl glyoxylate. 

5. Redox Titrations: 

Standard redox potentials, Nernst equation. Influence of complex formation, precipitation, and change of pH on redox potentials, Normal Hydrogen Electrode (NHE). Feasibility of a redox titration, redox potential at the equivalence point, redox indicators. Redox potentials and their applications. Principles behind Iodometry, permanganometry, dichrometry, the difference between iodometry and iodimetry. Principles of estimation of iron, copper, manganese, chromium by redox titration. 

6. Complexometric titrations: 

Complex formation reactions, the stability of complexes, stepwise formation constants, chelating agents. EDTA: acidic properties, complexes with metal ions, equilibrium calculations involving EDTA, conditional formation constants, derivation of EDTA titration curves, the effect of other complexing agents, factors affecting the shape of titration curves: indicators for EDTA titrations, titration methods employing EDTA: direct, back and displacement titrations, indirect determinations, titration of mixtures, selectivity, masking, and demasking agents. Typical applications of EDTA titrations: hardness of water, magnesium and aluminum in antacids, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in a mixture, titrations involving unidentate ligands: titration of chloride with Hg2+ and cyanide with Ag+. 

7. Organometallic compounds: 

18-electron rule and its applications to carbonyls and nature of bonding involved therein. Simple examples of metal-metal bonded compounds and metal clusters. Wilkinson’s catalyst. 

8. Nuclear chemistry: 

Radioactive decay- General characteristics, decay kinetics, parent-daughter decay growth relationships, determination of half-lives. Nuclear stability. Decay theories. Unit of radioactivity. Preparation of artificial radionuclides by bombardment, radiochemical separation techniques. Experimental techniques in the assay of radioisotopes, Geiger-Muller counters. Solid-state detectors. 

9. Chemistry of d- and f-block elements: 

d-block elements: General comparison of 3d, 4d, and 5d elements in terms of electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, atomization energy, oxidation states, redox properties, coordination chemistry, spectral and magnetic properties. 

f-block elements: Electronic configuration, ionization enthalpies, oxidation states, variation in atomic and ionic (3+) radii, magnetic and spectral properties of lanthanides, separation of lanthanides (by ion-exchange method). 

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) 

Chemistry: Paper-II (Physical Chemistry) 

1. Kinetic theory and the gaseous state: 

Real gases, Deviation of gases from ideal behavior; compressibility factor; van der Waals equation of state and its characteristic features. Existence of critical state. Critical constants in terms of van 29  der Waals constants. Law of corresponding states and the significance of the second virial coefficient. Boyle temperature. 

2. Solids: Nature of solid-state. Band theory of solids:

The qualitative idea of band theory, conducting, semiconducting and insulating properties. Law of the constancy of angles, the concept of the unit cell, different crystal systems, Bravais lattices, the law of rational indices, Miller indices, symmetry elements in crystals. X-ray diffraction, Bragg's law. 

3. Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium: 

Chemical potential in terms of Gibbs energy and other thermodynamic state functions and its variation with temperature and pressure. Gibbs-Duhem equation; fugacity of gases and fugacity coefficient. Thermodynamic conditions for equilibrium, degree of advancement. van Hoff's reaction isotherm. Equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs energy change. Definitions of KP, KC, and Kx; van Hoff's reaction isobar and isochore. Activity and activity coefficients of electrolytes/ions in solution. Debye-Hückel limiting law. 

4. Chemical kinetics and catalysis: 

Second-order reactions. Determination of order of reactions. Parallel and consecutive reactions. Temperature dependence of reaction rate, the energy of activation. Collision Theory and Transition State Theory of reaction rates. Enthalpy of activation, the entropy of activation, the effect of dielectric constant, and ionic strength on reaction rate, kinetic isotope effect. Physisorption and chemisorption, adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, BET equation, surface area determination; colloids, electrical double layer, and colloid stability, electrokinetic phenomenon. Elementary ideas about soaps and detergents, micelles, emulsions. 

5. Electrochemistry: 

Types of electrochemical cells, cell reactions, emf and Nernst equation, ᐃG, ᐃH, and ᐃS of cell reactions. Cell diagrams and IUPAC conventions. Standard cells. Half-cells/electrodes, types of reversible electrodes. Standard electrode potential and principles of its determination. Concentration cells. Determination of ᐃGº, Kº, Ksp, and pH. Basic principles of pH metric and potentiometric titrations, determination of equivalence point, and pKa values. 

6. Quantum chemistry: 

Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Uncertainty relation, Expectation value. Hermitian operators. Schrödinger time-independent equation: nature of the equation, acceptability conditions imposed on the wave functions, and probability interpretation of wave function. Schrödinger equation for a particle in a one-dimensional box and its solution. Comparison with free particle eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Particle in a 3-D box and concept of degeneracy. 

7. Basic principles and applications of spectroscopy: 

Electromagnetic radiation, interaction with atoms and molecules, and quantization of different forms of energies. Units of frequency, wavelength, and wavenumber. Condition of resonance and energy of absorption for various types of spectra; the origin of atomic spectra, the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Rigid rotor model, selection rules, spectrum, characteristic features of spectral lines. Determination of bond length, the effect of isotopic substitution. Vibrational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Simple Harmonic Oscillator model, selection rules, and vibration spectra. Molecular vibrations, factors influencing vibrational frequencies. Overtones, anharmonicity, normal mode analysis of polyatomic molecules. Raman Effect: Characteristic features and conditions of Raman activity with suitable illustrations. Rotational and vibrational Raman spectra. 

8. Photochemistry: 

Franck-Condon principle and vibrational structure of electronic spectra. Bond dissociation and the principle of determination of dissociation energy. The decay of excited states by radiative and nonradiative paths. Fluorescence and phosphorescence, Jablonski diagram. Laws of photochemistry: Grotthus-Draper law, Stark-Einstein law of photochemical equivalence; quantum yield and its measurement for a photochemical process, actinometry. Photostationary state. Photosensitized reactions. Kinetics of HI decomposition, H2-Br2 reaction, dimerization of anthracene. 

Chemistry: Paper-III (Analytical and Organic) PART-A (Analytical Chemistry)  

A1. Errors in quantitative analysis: 

Accuracy and precision, sensitivity, the specific standard deviation in analysis, classification of errors and their minimization, significant figures, criteria for rejection of data, Q-test, t-test, and F-test, control chart, sampling methods, sampling errors, standard reference materials, statistical data treatment. 

A2. Separation Methods: 

Chromatographic analysis: Basic principles of chromatography (partition, adsorption, and ion exchange), column chromatography, plate concept, plate height (HETP), normal phase and reversed-phase concept, thin layer chromatography, frontal analysis, principles of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC), and Ion-exchange chromatography. Solvent extraction: Classification, principle, and efficiency of the technique, mechanism of extraction, extraction by solvation and chelation, qualitative and quantitative aspects of solvent extraction, extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions. 

A3. Spectroscopic methods of analysis: 

Lambert-Beer's Law and its limitations. UV-Visible Spectroscopy: Basic principles of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Instrumentation consisting of source, monochromator, grating and detector, spectrophotometric determinations (estimation of metal ions from aqueous solutions, determination of the composition of metal complexes using Job’s method of continuous variation and mole ratio method). Infra-red Spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator, and detector) for single and double beam instruments, sampling techniques. Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator, detector, choice of flame and burner design), techniques of atomization and sample introduction, method of background correction, sources of chemical interferences and methods of removal, techniques for the quantitative estimation of trace level metal ions. Basic principles and theory of AAS. Three different modes of AAS - Flame-AAS, VG-AAS, and GF-AAS. Single beam and double beam AAS. The function of Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) and Electrode Discharge Lamp (EDL). Different types of detectors used in AAS. Qualitative and quantitative analysis. 

A4. Thermal methods of analysis: 

Theory of thermogravimetry (TG), a basic principle of instrumentation, techniques for quantitative analysis of Ca and Mg compounds. 

A5. X-ray methods of Analysis: 

Introduction, the theory of X-ray generation, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence methods, instrumentation, and applications. Qualitative and quantitative measurements. Powder diffraction method. 

A6. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy: 

Theory and principles, plasma generation, the utility of peristaltic pump, sampler–skimmer systems, ion lens, quadrupole mass analyzer, dynode / solid-state detector, different types of interference spectroscopic and non-spectroscopic interferences, isobaric and molecular interferences, applications. 

A7. Analysis of geological materials: 

Analysis of minerals and ores- estimation of (i) CaCO3, MgCO3 in dolomite (ii) Fe2O3, Al2O3, and TiO2 in bauxite (iii) MnO and MnO2 in pyrolusite. Analysis of metals and alloys: (i) Cu and Zn in brass (ii) Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al and Ni in bronze (iii) Cr, Mn, Ni, and P in steel (iv) Pb, Sb, Sn in ‘type metal’. Introduction to petroleum: constituents and petroleum fractionation. Analysis of petroleum products: specific gravity, viscosity, Doctor test, aniline point, color determination, cloud point, pour point. Determination of water, neutralization value (acid and base numbers), ash content, Determination of lead in petroleum. Types of coal and coke, composition, preparation of the sample for proximate and ultimate analysis, calorific value by bomb calorimetry. 

PART B (Organic chemistry) 

B1. Unstable, uncharged intermediates: Structure and reactivity of carbenes and nitrenes and their rearrangements (Reimer-Tiemann, Hoffman, Curtius, Lossen, and Schmidt,)

B2. Addition reactions: Addition to C-C multiple bonds: Mechanism of addition involving electrophiles, nucleophiles, and free radicals (polymerization reactions of alkenes and substituted alkenes), Ziegler-Natta catalyst for polymerization, polyurethane, and conducting polymers; an addition to conjugated systems (Diels-Alder reaction), orientation and reactivity (on simple cis- and trans- alkenes). Addition to carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds: Addition to C=O double bond, structure, and reactivity, hydration, the addition of ROH, RSH, CN-, bisulfite, amine derivatives, hydride ions. 

B3: Reactions at the carbonyl group: Cannizzaro, Aldol, Perkin, Claisen ester, benzoin, benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement, Mannich, Dieckmann, Michael, Strobe, Darzen, Wittig, Doebner, Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reactions. 

B4. Oxidation and Reduction: Reduction of C=C, Meerwein-Pondorf reaction, Wolff-Kishner, and Birch reduction. Oxidation of C=C, hydration, hydroxylation, hydroboration, ozonolysis, epoxidation, Sharpless epoxidation. 

B5. Electrocyclic Reactions: Molecular orbital symmetry, frontier orbitals of ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3,5-hexatriene, allyl system, FMO approach, pericyclic reactions, Woodward-Hoffman correlation diagram method and perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) approach for the explanation of pericyclic reactions under thermal and photochemical conditions. Simple cases of Norrish type-I and type-II reactions. Conrotatory and disrotatory motions of (4n) and (4n+2) polyenes with emphasis on [2+2] and [4+2] cycloadditions, sigmatropic rearrangements- a shift of H and carbon moieties, Claisen, Cope, Sommerlet-Hauser rearrangement. 

B6. Spectroscopic methods of analysis: 

Infrared spectroscopy: Characteristic frequencies of organic molecules and the interpretation of spectra. Modes of molecular vibrations, characteristic stretching frequencies of O-H, N-H, C-H, C-D, C=C, C=N, C=O functions; factors affecting stretching frequencies. 

Ultraviolet spectroscopy: Chromophores, auxochromes. Electronic transitions (σ−σ*, n-σ*, π-π* and n-π*), relative positions of λmax considering a conjugative effect, steric effect, solvent effect, redshift (bathochromic shift), blue shift (hypsochromic shift), hyperchromic effect, hypochromic effect (typical examples). Woodward rules. Applications of UV spectroscopy to conjugated dienes, trienes, unsaturated carbonyl compounds, and aromatic compounds. 

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry: (Proton and Carbon-13 NMR) Nuclear spin, NMR active nuclei, the principle of proton magnetic resonance, equivalent and non-equivalent protons. Measurement of spectra, the chemical shift, shielding/deshielding of protons, upfield and downfield shifts, the intensity of NMR signals and integration factors affecting the chemical shifts: spin-spin coupling to 13C I H-I H first-order coupling: some simple I H-I H splitting patterns: the magnitude of I HI H coupling constants, diamagnetic anisotropy. 

Mass spectrometry: Basic Principles, the mass spectrometer, isotope abundances; the molecular ion, metastable ions. McLafferty rearrangement. 

UPSC Geologist Salary 



Basic pay


House Rent Allowance (HRA) (X Class City)


Transport Allowance (TA)

7,344 (7,200 + 144)

Dearness Allowance (DA)




UPSC Geologist Salary Allowances

  • Basic Pay

  • House Rent Allowance (HRA)

  • Transport Allowance (TA)

  • Dearness Allowance

  • Daily Allowance

  • Medical Facilities

UPSC Geologist Salary Deduction











UPSC Geologist In Hand Salary

Applicants will get the in-hand salary by subtracting the deductions.

Rs. 70,866 - Rs. 6,175 = Rs. 64,691